MGMT 301 HW 1 bank热门

2: History of management: Definitions 


These forces influence the organization through laws and the government.
Political forces Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Political forces, which is defined in the textbook as “The influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations.."
Proposed by Henri Fayol, this approach to management focuses on the entire organization, using concepts such as unity of command and scalar chains to promote better management practices.
Administrative principles Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Administrative principles, which is defined in the textbook as “A subfield of the classical management perspective that focuses on the total organization, rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.."
Based on work by Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor, this perspective focuses on job redesign as one way to help employees grow and become more satisfied.
Human resources perspective Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Human resources perspective, which is defined in the textbook as “A management perspective that suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential.."
A view of management that requires observation of a complete organization as well as the organization’s relation with its environment and relations between the parts of the organization.
Systems thinking Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Systems thinking, which is defined in the textbook as “Seeing both the distinct elements of a situation and the complex and changing interaction among those elements.."
The idea that best management practices depend on the situation. What works in one situation may not work in a different situation.
Contingency view Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Contingency view, which is defined in the textbook as “An extension of the humanistic perspective in which the successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand.."
This theory is used by a manager who believes that his employees decide whether or not to perform the work he gives them.
Acceptance theory of authority Correct 
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1 / 1
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Explanation:
The correct answer for this definition is Acceptance theory of authority, which is defined in the textbook as “States that people have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders.."





The year is 1910, and Madame Patricia (Trish) LaBella, a prominent New York hostess, is having a dinner party. Madame LaBella’s husband, W.B. LaBella, is a distinguished industrialist who owns several large bicycle factories. W.B. prides himself on his fine product, but he faces fierce competition, both from Raleigh (an English bicycle company) and from the new automobiles that are starting to appear on the roads.
Last week, W.B. said to Trish, “I just don’t know what I’m going to do, my dear. Costs keep going up, and I have to find some way to encourage my workers to produce more.” Wanting to help her husband, Madame LaBella invited the most influential management thinkers of her day to gather at her table and discuss whether W.B. would benefit from using scientific management, bureaucratic management, or administrative principles in his factories.
Which of the following management theorists did not attend the dinner?
Correct
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Explanation:
Max Weber, Frederick Taylor, and Lillian Gilbreth all worked in the late 1800s and early 1900s, so they might have been present at the dinner. Peter Senge was not born until 1947, so he could not have attended the dinner.
Which of the management theorists attending the dinner developed a chart that showed timelines for various parts of a project as bar graphs?
Correct
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Explanation:
Henry Gantt worked with Frederick Taylor at both Midvale Steel and Bethlehem Steel. He designed many different types of charts to keep track of production and project management, but he is best known for the Gantt chart, which plots work activities on the Y-axis of a graph, and their start and stop times on the X-axis of the graph. Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester Barnard all contributed to the administrative management perspective, looking at the organization as a whole and developing general management principles to make things run more smoothly.
The guests at the party offered W.B. some very interesting ideas. Trish decided to make a chart to keep track of what was being said. For future reference, she thought she should note each guest’s management perspective next to his or her comments.
Help Trish complete her chart by identifying the management perspective associated with each of the following pieces of advice.
Statement Management Perspective
“Have you looked carefully at your worker’s movements? If you break each worker’s job down into the smallest possible task, you can redesign the job to use fewer motions and make it more efficient.” Scientific management Correct 
“W.B., you’ve owned the company for a long time, but have you ever considered hiring a professional manager to oversee day-to-day operations? Professional managers can help make sure that your company follows rational, impersonal rules, which will help you to increase efficiency.” Administrative principles Incorrect 
“W.B., make sure your managers are spending time in five different areas: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. If they’re overlooking an area, the company won’t be as effective.” Administrative principles Correct 
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Explanation:
Statement Management Perspective Explanation
“Have you looked carefully at your worker’s movements? If you break each worker’s job down into the smallest possible task, you can redesign the job to use fewer motions and make it more efficient.” Scientific management Scientific management emphasizes the scientific study of work, with the idea that managers can find the most efficient way to work and then train all employees to work that way. Since many of the proponents of scientific management were engineers, they were as interested in the equipment workers used as they were in the work itself. Frederick Taylor also introduced the idea of paying employees based on the amount they produced, rather than the number of hours worked. All of these management practices resulted in spectacular productivity gains, but also in complaints that workers were being exploited.
“W.B., you’ve owned the company for a long time, but have you ever considered hiring a professional manager to oversee day-to-day operations? Professional managers can help make sure that your company follows rational, impersonal rules, which will help you to increase efficiency.” Bureaucratic management Bureaucratic management emphasizes improving the efficiency of the entire organization rather than that of the individual worker. Standard procedures, written rules, and specific management hierarchies create companies that are not disrupted when an individual employee leaves. Bureaucratic management ensures fairness, since the same rules apply to all, but it has been criticized for slowing decision-making and stifling creativity.
“W.B., make sure your managers are spending time in five different areas: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. If they’re overlooking an area, the company won’t be as effective.” Administrative principles Administrative principles theorists focus on the total organization and on identifying management guidelines that will help the company operate more effectively. Henri Fayol identified five functions of management: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, and 14 management principles, including unity of command, division of work, unity of direction, and the scalar chain.


Select the word or phrase that best completes the following sentences.
The “father of total quality management” was selector 1W. Edwards Deming Correct 
.
Points:
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Explanation:
W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) was an American statistician, professor, and consultant. He started his career as a mathematical advisor to various government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of the Census, and the Internal Revenue Service. However, he is best known for his work in Japan, starting in 1950. There he popularized his ideas on statistical quality control in manufacturing. These ideas form the basis for total quality management, hence Deming’s title, “the father of total quality management.”
After starting the total quality management process, Hyundai Motor Company delayed several new car models in order to fix problems. These problem fixes were part of Hyundai’s selector 1continuous improvement Correct 
.
Points:
1 / 1
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Explanation:
The purpose of total quality management is to create the best product possible. One way to do this is through continuous improvement—identifying potential issues and fixing them before they become problems. The goal is to keep making things better, so that the number of quality defects is reduced. A focus on customer satisfaction guides continuous improvement, because companies try to fix problems before they reach customers; but, because this question refers to the fixing process itself, the correct answer is continuous improvement.
Read the following editorial and answer the questions that follow.
Management in the News
Hyundai: Rising Sales, Falling Quality?
In 2010, Hyundai Motor Company achieved a 4.6 share of the U.S. auto market, but it was forced to recall almost 140,000 Sonatas after an investigation by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Two consumers reported that their cars, assembled in Alabama, had defective steering systems. The problem appeared to stem from a simple assembly mistake: Bolts weren’t being connected to the steering column correctly.
An editorial in The Chosun Ilbo suggests that the action should sound an alarm for Hyundai, citing Toyota’s massive recall and resulting sales problems as an example of what can happen when rapid growth overshadows a commitment to quality. Noting that Hyundai’s share of the U.S. auto market was steadily increasing and that there had been another recall of 46,000 Hyundai cars with faulty front latches, the article advised Hyundai managers to focus on quality and rethink the company’s rapid growth policy.
Korean automakers are hungry to become major players in the automobile industry and need new markets to expand their global share. However, parts manufacturers are having a hard time keeping up with demand, and quality control processes can falter when production increases too quickly. The article warns Korea’s largest automobile manufacturer that “expansion must not come at the expense of quality.”
Source: Editorial. 2010. Hyundai must hit the brakes to avoid a Toyota-style crash. The Chosun Ilbo. September 28, 2010. http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2010/.09/28/2010092800716.html.
The authors of this editorial suggest that:
Correct
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1 / 1
Researchers who study total quality management have criticized a number of things about the technique and the way it is implemented in corporations today. Which of the following criticisms might be responsible for the problems Hyundai encountered with its steering system?  Check all that apply.
Incorrect
Correct
Incorrect
Correct
Points:
0.5 / 1
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Explanation:
The authors of this editorial suggest that total quality management is compromised in rapidly expanding organizations. One reason for this is that when energy and attention are devoted to increasing production and reducing costs, they are deflected from improving quality. But problems on the production line can also be the fault of the way the total quality management process is implemented and, perhaps, of the process itself. These problems include not implementing worker quality suggestions, focusing so intently on one part of the process that other parts are neglected, and taking large amounts of time and resources to do the measurement and monitoring associated with total quality management.





Select the responses that best complete the following sentences.
The human relations movement was based on the idea that truly effective control comes from selector 1within Correct 
the individual worker.
Points:
1 / 1
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Explanation:
The human relations movement moved management from a focus on getting employees to do what managers wanted them to do to a focus on working with employees as individual, valuable contributors to the organization. This thinking helped managers realize that they couldn’t control employees’ behavior—individuals controlled their own behavior—but they could work with people to allow them to contribute fully to the organization.
  
Hawthorne Works for the Manufacture of Power Apparatus, ca. 1920 Chicago, Ill.: Western Electric Company.
Baker Old Class Collection. Baker Library Historical Collections. Harvard Business School.
Researchers and scholars realized that subjects behaved differently because of the active participation of researchers in the Hawthorne experiments. This phenomenon has come to be known as the Hawthorne selector 1effect Correct 
in research methodology.
Points:
1 / 1
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Explanation:
Early interpretations of the Hawthorne studies focused on the idea that people control their own production, as opposed to being controlled by a manager or working conditions. And one important conclusion from the Hawthorne studies is that part of what motivates people is their relations with others, particularly their supervisors. When researchers later revisited the Hawthorne studies (there were multiple experiments and masses of data), they drew differing conclusions about the results. Some researchers felt that the effects of the Hawthorne studies were spurious—the Hawthorne effect—that changes in behavior were caused by simply observing the behavior. Other researchers felt that money and/or increased feedback were the causes of the increased production seen in the Hawthorne study.
Identify the significant achievement with which each management scholar in this table is associated.
Achievement
Management Scholar
His concept of the “informal organization” suggests that cliques and other social groups can affect employee behavior. selector 1Chester Barnard Correct 
This individual was a practicing psychologist who observed that his patients’ problems usually stemmed from an inability to satisfy their needs. selector 2Abraham Maslow Correct 
Points:
1 / 1
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Explanation:
Achievement
Management Scholar
Explanation
His concept of the “informal organization” suggests that cliques and other social groups can affect employee behavior. Chester Barnard Chester Barnard was a businessman long before he was a management scholar. As the president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone company, he was interested in both the effectiveness and efficiency of organizations. He outlined seven rules of effective communications in organizations and showed how the effectiveness of the overall organization could be influenced by both informal communication and the proper use of authority and incentives.
This individual was a practicing psychologist who observed that his patients’ problems usually stemmed from an inability to satisfy their needs. Abraham Maslow Famous for his hierarchy of needs theory, Maslow was a distinguished psychologist. He played a prominent role in developing a “Third Force” psychology based on the idea that human behavior is a function of a desire for personal improvement and is not driven only by conditioned responses or unconscious desires.
Using what you know about McGregor’s ideas, identify each assumption as belonging to Theory X or Theory Y.
Assumption
Theory
The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. The average human being does not inherently dislike work. selector 1Theory Y Correct 
Because of the human characteristic of dislike for work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. selector 2Theory X Correct 
Points:
1 / 1
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Explanation:
Assumption
Theory
Explanation
The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. The average human being does not inherently dislike work. Theory Y According to Douglas McGregor, theory Y managers believe that employees want to work and that their expertise and creativity make valuable contributions to the organization. Theory Y managers limit the number of rules and regulations employees must follow in the hopes of increasing employee satisfaction and thereby increasing motivation and productivity.
Because of the human characteristic of dislike for work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. Theory X According to Douglas McGregor, theory X managers feel that they need to maintain strict authoritarian control over employees who are not motivated to work. Theory X management may be necessary in some situations—for example, consider a sergeant in the Army who has 100 raw recruits reporting to him or her—but most organizations today do not encourage their managers to use this style.


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